Female Neanderthal
Female Neanderthal

The modern Neanderthal man lived for long periods before his extinction 28 thousand years ago. When talking about the Neanderthals, some people think that the cave man is that savage little mind. But scientific research has shown a detailed and accurate picture of him, as this man was able to think processes, and was able to survive and survive in some of the most difficult environments known to humans.


This species has existed since 28 – 300 thousand years ago, and accordingly it is classified into:

1 – Neanderthal early (first) lived about 300 thousand years ago.

2. The traditional Neanderthal man lived 130,000 years ago.

3 – The late Neanderthal man lived about 45 thousand years ago.


Homo: A Latin word meaning “human” or “human”. It is the same sex that is released to modern humans, which indicates the close relationship between Neanderthals and our species.

Neanderthalensis : The first fossil discovered in 1856 was in the village of Nyander, Germany, and since a village in German means Tall, so the full meaning of the name becomes the man from the village of Nyander.


The remains of this species were found in Europe and the Middle East, while fossils of a skull believed to represent this species were found in China and are known as Mappa.

A recent study published in 2009 confirmed the existence of three subgroups of nandertal, of which minor differences can be observed, and even suggest another group in West Asia. The study analyzed genetic variability and presented some possible scenarios according to the genetic makeup of mitochondrial DNA inherited from the mother. In 1997, the study analyzed 15 sequences of mother mitochondrial DNA obtained from 12 individuals. According to the study, the sizes of neanderthals have not been constant over time, and some migration may have occurred between subtypes.

Relationship with other species

Although we are closely related to Neanderthals, it is not our direct ancestor. Evidence has shown either fossil record or genetic analysis that neanderthals are a separate species that evolved as a lateral branch of the human family tree. Some European Heidelberg fossils have shown characteristics similar to those of early Neanderthals – so it is very likely that Neanderthal evolved from this type.

The name Neanderthal (Homo sapiens neandertalensis) was used when Neanderthal was thought to be a Homo sapiens, but that view and name are no longer preferred.

Mating with modern man

The analysis published in 2010 of the Neanderthal genome and DNA shows that modern humans and nandertals have already mated, albeit on a limited scale. The researchers compared the genome of 5 modern humans with the neandertal genome – finding that Europeans and Asians shared about 1-4% DNA with neandertal, while the analysis showed no similarity between Africans and nandertal. These results indicate that modern humans mated with Neanderthal after leaving Africa – but before spreading to Asia and Europe. The potential location for such marriages is the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine), where both species have been inseparable for tens of thousands of years, some 50-90,000 years ago. However, this evidence does not support the wide-scale marriage between the two species in Europe.

Did Neandertal Europe participate with Denisophan?

2010 The discovery of the bones of the finger and teeth of Denisova Cave – Russia, these bones were first discovered in 2008, and the age of about 30 – 50 thousand years. What distinguishes modern study is that DNA was extracted from mitochondria, and its sequence analysis was found to have not matched its counterpart in modern humans, and nandertal.

For more information, scientists have begun to extract DNA. Where Denisovan is now believed to have been more closely related to Neanderthal, not modern man. Hence, the evidence suggests that neanderthals and dinisophan share a common ancestor, following the separation of neanderthals and modern humans. It is possible that this neanderthals and dinosaurs have left Africa about half a million years ago, with neanderthals spreading westward to the Near East and Europe, while Denisophan has spread eastward. However, this does not mean that dinosophan is a new species. Perhaps it is a known species of fossil-DNA-free fossils, such as the Heidelberg man or the previous man.

Neanderthal skullsMorphological characteristics

Neanderthal is characterized by being human, with some distinctive features of the face, but also with a short, fat object. These features were only evolutionary adaptations of the cold and dry environment in which this person lived.

Shape and body size

Neanderthals possessed solid structures, and even muscular bodies, about modern man. As mentioned above, a short object.

The average length of the male is 168 cm, while the average length of the female 156 cm.


Neanderthals possessed a larger brain than modern humans, with a skull capacity of about 1500 cm 3 . This is expected, because this human being was more powerful than our kind. Where people living in cold climates tend to have a greater brain than those who live in a warm climate.


The skull was characterized by being long, low, and round.

It is found in the skull, bulge – a bump called the occipital bone bump, and a drop called a drop over the back of the neck. For strong neck muscles.

It had a thick, rounded arch and flat front, flat and shrunken.

The mid-face area appears, a distinct forward appearance.

The eye is characterized by being large – wide and rounded.

He had wide, huge nose.

Jaws and teeth

Neanderthals possessed a larger jaw, and a mother of modern man. But also has a gap – a space behind the third tooth called vacuum behind Darsi.

The jaw was missing the bone-marrow of the chin, which is in our species.

Teeth were characterized by being bigger than our counterparts.

Parties and pelvis

The bones of the limbs were thick and had large joints, indicating that this type of muscle had strong arms and legs.

The bones of the trachea and the forearm compared to the modern man are identical to those of those living in cold climates.

They had a larger basin than the modern man.

DNA studies and molecular biology

Neanderthals are the only species close to us that have been conducting studies on their DNA and other biomolecules. Although many studies have been initiated since the publication of the first study in 1997, the most important is the publication of an initial draft of the Neanderthal genome in 2009.

Studies have shown that Neandertal possesses a gene responsible for red hair and light skin. The FOXP2 gene, believed to be related to language ability, was also found to have the same gene. And also the possession of blood type O.

Lifestyle – First culture

Evidence shows that Neanderthals possessed a complex culture, although they did not act like the early modern man, who experienced Neanderthals. Scientists discuss the symbolic behavior of Neanderthals, where artifacts and artifacts are rare, especially when compared to contemporary modern humans, which produced large quantities of cave drawings, artifacts and portable ornaments. In fact, some researchers believe that Neanderthals lacked the cognitive and cognitive skills needed to create artifacts and symbols, and therefore they imitated them – copied or obtained them by trading with early modern humans, rather than making them themselves. Others suggest that the scarcity of these symbolic and artistic tools is only the result of social and demographic factors.

Stone tools for Neanderthal


Neanderthals used reasonably advanced tools, classified as Mode 3 technology, which were also used by early modern humans – primitive, and called the Mostrian instruments, because of the location where Le Mestre was discovered. By the end of their long history in Europe, the Neanderthal man made improved tools – known as chatterbirian, similar to flat, sharp-blade tools of modern man. These tools have been manufactured in conjunction with the entry of modern man Europe. Some archaeologists believe that these tools are an attempt to Neanderthal to simulate the tools they saw with modern man. Instead, they may have acquired it by trading with modern man.

Fire, shelter, and clothing

Neanderthals built fireplaces, where they were able to control the fire for heating, cooking, and protection. Neanderthals were known for their animal skins, especially for the colder regions. There is no physical evidence that Neanderthal clothes have been sewn together and are likely simply wrapped around the body and tied. Caves were often used as shelters, although Neanderthals were able to build and build shelters in the open.

Art and decoration

Oyster-shaped oysters are believed to be due to Neandertal
Oyster-shaped oysters are believed to be due to Neandertal

The Neanderthal man left behind no evidence of symbolic art, only a limited guide to decorating the body. One of those few pieces – a necklace – was found at the Neanderthal site, called the Arc de Cure, in France. It should be noted that the necklace was found among a set of bone tools attributed to the culture of chatterbirinian, which most of the researchers belong to the Neandertal. However, re-dating the layers of this site in 2010 suggested contamination between the layers, so these tools may have been made by modern humans, where they set up this site at later times. We have another site that goes back to the culture of Chatelebronian as well, where it was found in personal costume, and even these may have been obtained by trade or emulated.

In 2010, scientists uncovered industrial tools at the sites of Anton Rock Shiller, Avion’s Cave – Spain, which provide indirect evidence of the symbolic art of Neanderthal. Where the first site resulted in oyster shells, painted orange, while the second site revealed a shell that may be used as a container for paint – colors, which contain the remnants of red and black pigments. In the history of the vessels found on the second site, it was found to be 45 – 50 thousand years ago, before the arrival of the modern man to Europe – and therefore these tools have not been simulated or reproduced.


The dead have often been buried, and there is no definitive evidence of our ritual. Whatever, some things have been discovered which may represent funerary enclosures.

Environment and food

This species operated a range of environments across Europe and the Middle East – and lived during a period of climate change. During Europe’s glacial periods some warm periods occurred, but about 110,000 years ago the average temperature began to decline until the full ice ages appeared 40,000 years ago.

We have evidence that Neanderthals have hunted large prey – and even the chemical analysis of the fossils showed that they ate large quantities of meat alongside vegetarian foods. Despite this mixed diet, about half of the skeletons and fossils studied show a diet lacking nutrients.

Researchers have been discussing for a long time about neandertal intake of human flesh. It must be recognized that it is not easy to attribute human flesh-cutting marks to cannibalism – perhaps the effects of predator teeth, or some kind of practice. But in recent years, research has shown that perhaps – indeed – some neanderthals eat human meat at intervals or occasions.


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Fran Dorey, “Homo neanderthalensis”, Australian Museum , October 30, 2015

University of Texas Austin, “Homo neanderthalensis”, efossils

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Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, ” Homo neanderthalensis “, Human Origins, January 3, 2017